ACETOBACTER

27 plus species including:

SPECIES

Acetobacter aceti
Acetobacter diazotrophicus
Acetobacter hansenii
Acetobacter liquifaciens
Acetobacter methanolicus
Acetobacter pasteurianus
Acetobacter xylinum

MICROSCOPIC APPEARANCE

Gram Stain: Negative. In a few cases these organisms are gram-variable.
Morphology: Ovoid or rod shaped, straight to slightly curved. Occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains.
Size: 0.6 - 0.8 micrometers by 1.0 - 4.0 micrometers.
Motility: Non-motile or motile; if motile, the flagella are peritichous or lateral.
Capsules: No.
Spores: No.

MACROSCOPIC APPEARANCE

Large, slimy, pale colonies; most strains produce no pigments. A minority of strains produce brown water-soluble pigments or show pink colonies due to porphyrins.

METABOLIC PROPERTIES

Strictly aerobic. Chemoorganoheterotrophic with a respiratory type metabolism. Many strains can oxidize ethanol to acetic acid/CO 2 ; sugars probably metabolized mainly via the HMP and TCA pathways.

KEY BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS

HABITAT

Widely distributed in vegetation, spoilage organisms in wines, beer, etc.

PATHOGENICITY

Acetobacter is not known to have any pathogenic effect towards humans or animals. However, Acetobacter does cause pink disease in pineapple fruit and rot in apples and pears.

RECOMMENDED MEDIA

For culture: GYC Media.
For selective isolation: Yeast Extract Agar with Ethanol.
For maintenance: GYC Media.

INCUBATION

Temperature: Optimum incubation temperature 25 - 30 degrees C.
Time: 24 - 48 hours.
Atmosphere: Aerobic.
pH: Optimum pH for growth 5.4 - 6.3.

REFERENCES

1. Holt, J.G., et al. 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology , 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

2. Holt, J.G., et al. 1986. Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology , Volumes I & II. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

3. The Oxoid Vade-Mecum of Microbiology . 1993. Unipath Ltd., Basingstoke, UK.

4. Murray, P.R., et al. 1995. Manual of Clinical Microbiology , 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.

5. Internet: www.hardlink.com /Bacterial Database Search, February, 1998.


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