23 species plus including:



Gram Stain: Gram-negative, although bipolar staining is often seen.
Morphology: Coccoid, rod-shaped, pleomorphic cells occurring singly in pairs or short chains.
Size: 0.3-1.0 micrometers by 1.0-2.0 micrometers.
Motility: Non-motile.
Capsules: Encapsulation occurs often.
Spores: None.


Colonies appear convex, smooth, and translucent.



Facultatively anaerobic. Chemoorganotrophic, having both fermentative and respiratory type metabolism. Saccharolytic.


P. multocida has been recovered from many animal species, both wild and domesticated, normal and diseased. Found on mucous membranes of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts of mammals (rarely man) and birds.


Primary diseases of domestic animals caused by P. multocida include: hemorrhagic septicemia of cattle and buffaloes. Fowl cholera, an acute chronic disease of chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and wild fowl, and occasional primary pasteurellosis may occur in many animal species. As an agent of secondary disease P. multocida is a common and important secondary invader of pneumonic lesions in cattle, sheep, swine and goats causing many cases of chronic to severe pneumonia. P. multocida is mainly an opportunist or secondary invader in internal infections in humans; a wide variety of sporadic infections have been reported, including meningitis, encephalitis, otitis, septicemia, sinusitis, peritonitis, bronchiectasis and arthritis.


For culture: Blood Agar and Chocolate Agar.
For selective isolation: MacConkey Agar - for Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella aerogenes only.
For maintenance: Cooked Meat Medium for short-term maintenance and Skim Milk may be used for storage at -70 degrees C. Lyophilization is required for long-term preservation.


Temperature: 35 degrees C.
Time: 48 hours.
Atmosphere: Anaerobic.


1. Holt, J.G., et al. 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology , 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

2. Holt, J.G., et al. 1986. Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology , Vol. I & II. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

3. The Oxoid Vade-Mecum of Microbiology . 1993. Unipath Ltd., Basingstoke, UK.

4. Murray, P.R., et al. 1995. Manual of Clinical Microbiology , 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.

5. Internet: /Bacterial Database Search, February, 1998.

6. Hensyl, B.R., et al. 1990. Stedman's Medical Dictionary , 25th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

7. Koneman, et al. 1997. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology , 5th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA.