PSEUDOMONAS

118 plus species including:

SPECIES

MICROSCOPIC APPEARANCE

Gram Stain: Gram-negative.
Morphology: Straight or slightly curved rods, but not helical.
Size: 0.5-1.0 micrometers by 1.5-5.0 micrometers.
Motility: Motile by one or several flagella. In some species lateral flagella or shorter wavelengths may be formed. Rarely non-motile.
Capsules: No.
Spores: No.

MACROSCOPIC APPEARANCE

Some colonies produce water-soluble pigment pyoverdin or pyocyanin that fluoresce white to beige under UV light. Other non-flourescent soluble and insoluble, pigments exist. They do not produce prosthecae and are not surrounded by sheaths.

KEY BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS

METABOLIC PROPERTIES

Aerobic. Chemoorganotrophic having a strictly respiratory type metabolism. Oxygen acts as the primary terminal electron acceptor. In some cases, nitrate can be used as an alternate electron acceptor, allowing growth to occur anaerobically. Some species are facultative Chemolithotrophic, using H 2 or CO as energy sources.

HABITAT

Widely distributed in the environment (soil and water).

PATHOGENICITY

Opportunistic pathogen for humans, animals, and plants ranging from superficial skin infections to fulminant sepsis.

RECOMMENDED MEDIA

For culture: Tryptic Soy Agar or Nutrient Agar.
For selective isolation: MacConkey Agar or Pseudomonas Isolation Agar.
For maintenance: Tryptic Soy Agar or Nutrient Agar. Brucella with Glycerol or Skim Milk for long-term storage at -70 degrees C. Lyophilization may be used for preservation.

INCUBATION

Temperature: Environmental Strains: 20-25 degrees C.
Clinical Strains: 35 degrees C.
Time: Variable among species.
Atmosphere: Aerobic.

REFERENCES

1. Holt, J.G., et al. 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology , 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

2. Holt, J.G., et al. 1986. Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology , Vol. I & II. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

3. The Oxoid Vade-Mecum of Microbiology . 1993. Unipath Ltd., Basingstoke, UK.

4. Murray, P.R., et al. Manual of Clinical Microbiology , 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.

5. Internet: www.hardlink.com /Bacterial Database Search, February, 1998.

6. Hensyl, B.R., et al. 1990. Stedman's Medical Dictionary , 25th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

7. Koneman, et al. 1997. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology , 5th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA.

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